The traditional Finnish knife, popularly called "Finnish", has been widely used in Russia since the 1930s. Today it is used for both hunting and household purposes, undergoing some modifications by craftsmen-craftsmen. The original purpose of the Finnish knife in the homeland of origin was household: it was used for housework, woodwork, then it began to be used for hunting and fishing.
Features of the Finnish knifeFinnish knife
The classic Finnish knife has its own characteristics:
- The direct form of the structure, consisting of a blade and a handle without a limiter.
- The handle was always made of wood. This is due to the fact that in cold weather the tree is warmer and more comfortable for the hand than other materials. In addition, the wooden handle will not fill your hand. For its manufacture, solid varieties of wood have always been used, most often birch, which has the most beautiful wood pattern.
- The shape of the handle is made under the arm, expanding in the center, without recesses for the fingers. The end of the handle is always expanded, which is associated with the ease of use in mittens. This part of it can take the form of a mushroom or crest cap, and the wider it is, the more convenient and faster it is to get a knife out of its sheath.
- The surface of the Finnish knife is always smooth so as not to rub your hands when used without mittens.
- The wooden handle is well saturated with beeswax, thus, it is given special strength, and at the right time the knife will not slip out of the hand.
- The blade is smooth, straight, some models can be equipped with a falling back.
- The dimensions of the blade are usually from 70 to 120 mm in the length of the blade, and the handle - from 60 to 100 mm. The thickness of the blade reaches 3.3 mm.
- Finnish is made from carbon or hardened steel with a hardness of up to 54 units on the Rockwell scale.
- In addition, the Finnish knives are characterized by the presence of a low descent and wide shackles along the bottom of the blade.
- Be sure to have a calfskin scabbard with a suspension for attaching to a belt. Often the sheath is made of birch bark, strong and reliable.
The classic "finca" is gradually being modified, being updated with modern design. The handle is often decorated, the head on it can be made in the form of any animals or other figures, a brass or gold ring appeared between the handle and the blade. It not only serves as a decoration for a knife, but also as a strengthening of the connection between the handle and the blade. Engraving can be applied to the blade, and the sheath is decorated in a variety of ways, using embossing, burning, weaving.
Based on the traditional Finnish knife, the Russian version of the "Finnish" was created. Its characteristic difference is the presence of a groove on the blade and guard - cross protective separation of the blade and the handle from slipping and more comfortable holding in hands. Unlike the famous prototype, the Russian "Finnish" replenished the ranks of edged weapons, in which it was until 1996.
Puukko and leuku
The Finnish puukko knife is a prototype of a classic Finnish. Its name comes from the Finnish word "forest" and means tools for working with wood, gutting fish, flashing and butchering game. In fact, puukko is a universal household knife optimized for specific climatic and social conditions. The following varieties of puukko knives are: for working on wood with a smoothly curved butt; knife with a wide blade and a comfortable long handle; universal knife for hunting; a knife with a short blade for woodworking, other. The manufacture of puukko is laid down by tradition in every Finnish family, and its design is a historical reflection of the masters of its manufacture. His blade often has grooves on the sides of the blade, there are descents from the middle of the butt and flattening to zero. This creates convenience when working with wood. Through-mounting of the blade is characteristic of puukko, and the front end of the handle is reinforced with a metal bolster. The blade itself is not long, not exceeding 10 cm in length.
The leuku knife is the second kind of Finnish knife. Unlike puukko, this species is thicker, longer and heavier. A suitable characteristic for him is a cleaver knife. It is used for scrubbing pegs, clearing shrubs, for rough camp work, splitting chips. This knife is in some cases able to replace a light ax. The end face of the handle is designed as a symmetrical fungus so that the knife sits firmly in the hand during sweeping strokes.
Imagining a traditional, classic pattern of puukko and leuku, you can make a Finnish knife with your own hands.
Finnish do-it-yourself puukko knifeFinnish do-it-yourself puukko knife
Before making a puukko, it is necessary to sketch a drawing of a future knife with the dimensions of the handle, blade, thickness, and also additional details. After that, the sketch of the blade is cut out and applied to the steel billet, circled, then the long and laborious process of cutting the billet begins. You can use any convenient tool for cutting metal - sandpaper, file, grinder. After the workpiece is sawn, a hole for the rivet needs to be drilled at the end of the shank, this can be done with a victory drill. You can immediately make a rivet: take a brass rod with a diameter slightly smaller than the drilled hole.
Further, the descents of the blade are formed. Using an emery machine, the blade is sharpened so that the descents are brought to "zero". When withdrawing descents, you need to ensure that they are the same on both sides. At this stage of manufacturing, you can make the teeth on the shank, allowing further rigid sticking of the handle.
Grinding of the blade is carried out with a medium-rough grinding stone, and the cutting edge of the product is formed using a grinding whetstone. Work with the blade ends with its grinding with felt. The sleeve is made of 3mm brass:
- A sketch of the sleeve with a groove is applied to the plate
- A drill with a drill of 2 mm drills several holes in place of the groove with their further drilling.
- A hacksaw forms the shape of the sleeve, which is inserted on the shank and sealed on both sides.
Next, a handle is made. It can be performed in a simple way and time-consuming, depending on personal preferences. A simple way is as follows:
- You need to take a beam of birch, drill a hole in it for attaching a blade, as well as a hole for a rivet.
- With the help of epoxy glue, the blade is glued inside, after the glue dries, the shape of the handle is formed with the help of sandpaper.
- Further, the handle is fixed in place of the rivet with a brass rod, and polished on a special machine.
- The handle made is soaked with beeswax, linseed oil or a special paste.
Do-it-yourself finnish knife leukuDo-it-yourself finnish knife leuku
Leuku is made in a similar way to that of puukko.
- A drawing is made with a sketch of the required dimensions, the sketch is cut out and applied to the material. As a material, you can use a piece of steel P6M5.
- A piece of metal is clamped with a vise, a grinder outlined by a sketch is cut from it.
- Descent is forming.
- From a brass bar, a bolster is formed by drilling in the middle of the hole along the diameter of the shank.
- On the shank, you need to make cuts away from the blade for a tight fit of the handle.
- A sharpening stone forms a cutting edge that is the same on both sides. The blade is polished, after which you can begin to manufacture the handle.
- A birch bar is used for the handle. On it, with a marker, it is necessary to mark the alignment of the handle from all sides, the projection of the inner hole. Make sure that the hole is exactly in the middle. Then, a hole is made with a long drill at the intended center. This must be done as follows: two holes are drilled parallel to each other, then the jumper between them is removed with a file. Next, the shank is inserted, and if it does not sit well enough, the hole is brought again with a drill.
Next, an emery cloth of medium granularity processes the place on the bar, to which the bolster will adjoin. Then the blade is wrapped with electrical tape so that it can not be cut. Next, a bolster is put on the shank closer to the blade, after which a piece of leather (so that the parts fit tightly together, as well as to prevent the penetration of water into the handle through the hole), after which the shank is mounted on epoxy adhesive inside the handle.