A broken arm is the most common accident that can occur both at home, and on vacation, in nature. No one is safe from this event, especially children. Therefore, it is very important for each person to know the basics of first aid in case of a broken arm, in order to help themselves and others in an emergency before going to the doctor. First aid for hand fractures is a series of simple steps that anyone can handle. The main thing in this case is not to get confused and begin to act immediately.
Fracture symptomsSymptoms of a broken arm
The cause of damage to the bones of the hand can be a mechanical impact from a blow, a fall from a height, getting into an accident, strong physical exertion. Children often break bones due to hyperactivity, and in the elderly they are weakened and prone to fractures. If one of these situations arises, there is a high risk of fracture of the bones of the hands. To distinguish a broken arm from a severe bruise, dislocation or sprain, you should know the symptoms:
- A clear sign is the unnatural position of the affected part of the arm.
- Excessive joint mobility
- Crunch on palpation or attempted movement
- An open fracture is easily diagnosed by characteristic signs - visual observation of a broken bone, rupture of soft tissues and bleeding.
- Sharp severe pain spreading to neighboring organs. A clear symptom is a sharp pain along the hand, which occurs if you slightly pull the victim by the hand.
- Severe swelling
- In the affected limb, the temperature is lower than the whole body.
- Hemorrhage under the skin (hematoma)
- The hand may become a little shorter than the second
- The joint is limited in movement, if the nerve is damaged, limb immobilization is observed.
A closed fracture differs from an open fracture in the integrity of tissues, while an open fracture of the skin, muscle tissue with bone fragments or external mechanical damage. And that, and another type of damage happens with displacement of bone fragments and without it. By the number of broken bones, the fracture can be isolated, i.e. concentrated in any one place, for example, the forearm, or multiple, when the damage affects several places at once (for example, the forearm and hand). In any case, judging by the symptoms, first aid should be provided for a broken arm to the injured person, and you also need to help him get to qualified trauma specialists or surgeons. Already in the hospital, an accurate diagnosis will be made using an X-ray machine, and the necessary manipulations will be carried out with the affected part of the body. If first aid is not provided to the victim, especially with complicated fractures, there is a risk of blood poisoning, bleeding, tissue inflammation, and the spread of infection.
Closed arm fracture: first aidWith a closed fracture, the hands impose a tire
If there is a suspicion of a closed fracture, first of all, it is necessary to completely immobilize the limb. If you don’t immobilize your arm in time, a closed fracture may turn into an open one. Immobilization is carried out by applying a tire, which can be used as any materials at hand: a board, a ski pole, plywood, a thick branch. The tire is fixed to the arm, ensuring its immobility to reduce pain and prevent displacement. In no case should you pull the limb while trying to straighten the bones. To properly lay the tire, you need to know the features of this process:
- The splint is fixed to at least two joints to prevent the displacement of bone fragments.
- The size of the tire must match the size of the limb, but not less, to securely fix it.
- The tire is superimposed over the clothes, so it needs to be cut, but not removed.
It is more convenient to make a tire overlay together when one holds a limb, protecting it from displacements, and the other fixes it. Instead of a bandage, you can use any dressing, up to the rope.
You can take any analgesic drug that is available in a home or camping medicine cabinet - ketorol, analgin, nimesulide, inject novocaine or promedol. If the victim is on the verge of losing consciousness, it is necessary to remove him from this state with ammonia. You can not take aspirin, as it can contribute to severe bleeding. Simultaneously with painkillers, it is recommended that the victim be given “cardiac” means for adoption: valocordin, cordiamine, soothing agents - valerian, tazepam, trioxazine. This will help the victim to stop panicking and begin to control their actions.Hand splint
Until severe swelling occurs, all jewelry should be removed from the hand. If they are no longer removable, it is worth entrusting this to doctors who carefully cut jewelry from their fingers or hands.
A splint is usually applied directly to a closed fracture, but if damage has occurred in the elbow or shoulder joint, a suspension bandage is made for the limb, and the arm is bent at the elbow. At the same time, a soft roller is inserted into the armpit, fixed with a bandage. The arm is drawn to the side and bends at a right angle at the elbow. One meter long Kramer wire splint is applied to the bent limb, the entire length from the shoulder to the fingers. On top of the tire is covered with cotton wool, bandages, tightly bandaged. The hand is suspended from the torso.
First aid for open fracture of the armFirst aid for open fracture of the arm
First aid for an open fracture is to stop bleeding, prevent infection from entering the bloodstream, disinfect surrounding tissues, anesthetize, prevent the occurrence of pain shock, and also immobilize a damaged limb.
To stop bleeding, it is necessary to apply a tourniquet over the site of damage at a distance of 10-15 cm. Instead of a tourniquet, you can use a regular belt. It is especially important to stop the blood as quickly as possible, if it is bright scarlet in color - this indicates arterial bleeding. One and a half hours after the application of the tourniquet, it must be loosened so that the necrosis of the limb tissue cells does not begin. Next, rinse the open wound with hydrogen peroxide with clean water to disinfect the wound and prevent inflammation. The edges of the wound can be treated with iodine, brilliant green or any alcohol-containing liquid. If the bleeding from the wound is venous, you can not pull it with a tourniquet, but rather apply a tight bandage.
After stopping the bleeding, the victim needs to take pain medication, as in the case of a closed fracture. With an open fracture, a person's body temperature can rise. If it occurs within the first 24 hours after the injury, the victim urgently needs to seek medical help. If it appeared after two to three days, it is enough to take anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics.
After the measures taken, a broken arm is fixed with a tire. It is superimposed on the opposite side of the protruding bone; before fixation, something soft must be placed on the protruding part of the bone.
First aid for fracture of the handHand splint on fracture of the hand
The easiest way to break a brush is because it is the fragile part of the upper limb itself. In this case, fractures are classified as damage to the metacarpal bones, wrists, one or more phalanges of the fingers. First aid for a fracture of the hand is as follows:
- Remove all rings from fingers immediately to prevent tissue necrosis.
- Attach an ice pack or other coolant wrapped in cloth.
- If open bleeding is present, a tight dressing must be applied.
- The hand wraps around a bandage that slips over the shoulder over the neck. Immobility does not allow bones to move.
- The victim must be given pain medication.
After carrying out these measures, the victim must be taken to the nearest emergency room. He should ride while holding, with a healthy hand, his injured one, so that it does not move during movement.